Saturday, March 27, 2010

Theory of Relativity proved again

BERLIN - JULY 03:  A wax model of Albert Einst...

Image by Getty Images via Daylife

n 1915,  Albert Einstein predicted in his manuscript, ‘The General Theory of Relativity’, that the universe is expanding at a much faster pace than expected. His theory was proven this week.

Several astronomers from North America and Europe have studied over 446,000 galaxies to create a map of the universe. The astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope to accomplish the task and have confirmed the accelerating expansion of the universe as well as Einstein’s theories about gravity. They proved that the universe is growing larger at an accelerated rate and is controlled by a force called dark energy.

In his widely studied theory, Einstein also predicted that the galaxy held a substance called dark matter. He used this term to explain the blank space that makes up 80 percent of the universe as well as causes the gravitational pull which in turn causes the galaxies to form. He also termed the universe’s accelerating expansion dark energy.

File:COSMOS 3D dark matter map.jpg
Image via Wikipedia

3D map of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, reconstructed from measurements of weak gravitational lensing. The field of view covers about nine times the size of the full moon, and the third dimension stretches from redshift z=0 to z),

One of the astronomers on the team, University of B. C astronomer Ludovic Van Waerbeke, said, “If you think the universe is essentially made of matter and radiation, there is absolutely no way you can explain the acceleration. It is absolutely impossible. So the only reasonable way of explaining this acceleration is by having a new source of energy in the universe which has very funny behavior. We called it dark energy.”

This is the third study to confirm the existence of dark energy.

Einstein also predicted that gravity is caused by matter warping space and time. In simpler terms this means that light bends near massive objects. This was seen by using a technique where light from distant galaxies is seen bending as it travels through outer space; this technique is known as weak gravitational lensing.

Astronomers now believe that the universe is made up of three components: normal matter such as the grass, trees, animals, stars, other planets; dark matter which is invisible to the naked eye but is known to exist because of the gravitational pull; and dark energy which causes the universe to expand.

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Friday, March 26, 2010

Google Chrome OS

Google Chrome OS Concept

Image by FreeCliDent via Flickr


  • Speed
  • Simplicity
  • Security
  • Open Source Light Weight OS
  • Runs on both x86 as well as ARM chips
  • Virus Free


On Google Chrome OS FAQ. they say..

Is Google Chrome OS free?
Yes – Google Chrome OS is an open source project and will be available to use at no cost.
What companies is Google working with to support Google Chrome OS?
The Google Chrome OS team is currently working with a number of technology companies to design and build devices that deliver an extraordinary end user experience. Among others, these companies include Acer, Adobe, ASUS, Freescale, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, and Toshiba.

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Pale blue dot: a vision of the human future in space

As a childe I was always fascinating by looking at moon and star and when I was watching the series Cosmos of Carl Sagan I came to know the universe is bigger and beautiful more then my imagination.The advancement in new technologies open the door of space exploration.


Pale blue dot: a vision of the human future in space

By Carl Sagan

In this book he described how human started his struggle by hunting animal for food to exploring the world from known seas to unknown ocean and exploring the space today and what will be human future.

In his word

” Pale Blue Dot is about a new recognition, still slowly overtaking us, of our coordinates, our place in the universe and how, even if the call of the open road is muted in our time, a central element of the human future lies far beyond the earth.”

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Thursday, March 25, 2010

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Moenjo-daro (Mound of the Dead), An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis

So-called "Priest King" statue, Mohe...

Image via Wikipedia

The name of Mohenjo-daro is widely recognized as one of the most important early cities of South Asia and the Indus Civilization and yet most publications rarely provide more than a cursory overview of this important site.
Mohenjo-daro (Urdu: موئن جودڑو, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, English: Mound of the dead)—a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 B.C.E., located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. That ancient 5,000–year–old city constitutes the largest of Indus Valley, widely recognized as one of the most important early cities of South Asia and the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo Daro, one of the world’s first cities and contemporaneous with ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, has been sometimes referred to as "An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis."

Discovery and Major Excavations

Mohenjo Daro, built around 2600, had been abandoned around 1700 B.C.E.. Sir John Marshall's archaeologists rediscovered it in the 1920s. His car, still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, shows his presence, struggle, and dedication for Mohenjo-daro. Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler carried out further excavations in 1945. Mohenjo-daro in ancient times had been most likely the administrative center of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. The most developed and advanced city in South Asia during its peak, Mohenjo-daro's planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.


                                Well at Mohenjo Daro

History: The Mohenjo-daro ruins had been once the center of this ancient society. At its peak, some archaeologists opine that the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. To date, over 1,000 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the Indus River valley in Pakistan and north western India. Anthropologists have yet to decipher the language of the Indus Civilization, and the real name of the city as of other excavated cities in Sindh, Punjab and Gujarat, remains unknown. Mohenjo-Daro, 25 km southwest of Larkana, had been the center of the Indus Valley Civilization 2600 B.C.E.-1700 B.C.E.

Mohenjo-daro had been a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, laid out in perfect patterns. At its height the city probably had around 35,000 residents. The buildings of the city, of particularly advanced designed, had structures constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood. The public buildings of those cities also suggest a high degree of social organization.

Covered Drain emptying down slope on major street leading to the Great Bath.

The great granary at Mohenjo-daro, designed with bays, received carts delivering crops from the countryside. Ducts exist for air to circulate beneath the stored grain to dry it. Close to the granary, a building similarly civic in nature stands: a great public bath, with steps down to a brick-lined pool in a colonnaded courtyard. The elaborate bath area had been extremely well built, with a layer of natural tar to keep it from leaking, and in the center stood the pool. Measuring 12m x 7m, with a depth of 2.4m, the pool had been likely used for religious or spiritual ceremonies.

Inuds STreet Mohenjodaro

Looking north along First Street. The area to the left has been fully excavated and the area to the right is unexcavated. Later street levels are seen in the background.

The houses had been designed and constructed to protect inhabitants from noise, odors, and thieves. That urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. Some of the houses included rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, waste water diverted to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. A variety of buildings stood up to two stories high. Being an agricultural city, it featured a large well, and central marketplace. It had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing.

view of the city

Sewage system used in Mohen jo daro


"The Dancing girl" artifact found in Mohenjo Daro

"The Dancing girl" artifact found in Mohenjo Daro”

A clay toy from Mohenjodaro

A clay toy from Mohenjodaro

The Dancing girl found in Mohenjo Daro constitutes an interesting artifact some 4500-years old. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl, found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo Daro, had been British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler's favorite statuette, as he said in this quote from a 1973 television program:

"There is her little Baluchi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eye. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."

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What is 4th Dimension?

Created by Jason Hise with Maya and Macromedia...

Image via Wikipedia

I was trying to get the full understanding of 4th dimension from several year now but it is always difficult to understand because it has different definition in mathematics, physics, and metaphysics.

"Dimensions" are a means of organizing different planes of existence according to their vibratory rate. Each dimension has certain sets of laws and principles that are specific to the frequency of that dimension.

In mathematics the fourth dimension, or a four-dimensional space, is an abstract concept, obtained by taking the rules of our three-dimensional space and generalizing them to a space with one more dimension. It has been studied by mathematicians and philosophers for almost two hundred years, both for its own interest and for the insights it offered into mathematics and related fields.

We live in a world of three dimensions. Well, we only perceive three dimensions. We can hypothesize many more dimensions. But, they are difficult to imagine.

Because of Einstein, we often call time the fourth dimension. Special relativity shows that time behaves surprisingly like the three spatial dimensions. The Lorenz equations show this. Length contracts as speed increases. Time expands as speed increases.

Scientists Predict How to Detect a Fourth Dimension of Space

Scientists at Duke and Rutgers universities have developed a mathematical framework they say will enable astronomers to test a new five-dimensional theory of gravity that competes with Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.


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Top 5 Songs of Britney Spears

'CoverCover of Circus

Britney Spears started her career at the age of 16 in 1998 . Her music became the definitive sound of teen pop. Her star faded amid tabloid headlines, but, defying the odds, she returned in 2007 to become as big of a pop star as she had been before with some of the best music of her career.

1. "...Baby One More Time" (1998)

Britney Spears - ...Baby One More Time

This single introduced Britney to pop music fans around the world. Produced by pop mastermind Max Martin, the song is full of hooks and a big mainstream pop sound. The accompanying schoolgirl video caused a sensation, and, when the single hit #1, Britney was assured of stardom.

2. "Toxic" (2004)

Britney Spears - ToxicCourtesy Jive Records

This hit helped prove Britney could still put together stirring and original music six years after her first appearance. The song is a killer dance track with a James Bond adventure movie feel. "Toxic" deservedly brought Britney Spears back to the pop top 10 for the first time in four years.

3. "Womanizer" (2008)

Britney Spears - WomanizerCourtesy Jive Records

Britney Spears hit #1 on the pop singles chart with "Womanizer." It was her first trip to the top since the first single "...Baby One More Time." It's a good song, and will stick in your mind the very first time. It is accompanied by arguably the best music video of Britney's career.

4."Piece Of Me" (2007)

Britney Spears - Piece Of MeCourtesy Jive Records

Here Britney Spears takes on the paparazzi directly, and she is taking no prisoners. After listening to this, if you still want a piece of her, you are more brave than most of us.

5."Circus" (2008)

Britney Spears - CircusCourtesy Jive Records

The title song of the Circus album proved that "Womanizer" was no fluke. It also cemented Britney Spears' return to membership among the elite pop musicians of today. It seems that Britney Spears is here to stay.

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Rover Tracks Spotted on Moon

There is interesting finding on one of the NASA images from moon. The Soviet Union landed Lunokhod 2 on the moon in January 1973, a month after the last American moonwalk. As the name suggests, it was the second of two solar-powered robotic rovers the Soviets sent to the moon.

These tracks, made by the Soviet moon rover Lunokhod 2, as well as the rover itself were spotted by University of Western Ontario professor Phil Stooke. He found them by comparing recently-released images of the moon from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter to his own book The International Atlas of Lunar Exploration.

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Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Beautifull Canadian Winter

In Dec 2009 journey by road from Dawson city, Yukon to Saskatoon. There were great scenes want to share here.